I don’t think we are conned into believing we’ve run 2 miles, nor that we are conned into believing that we have drunk two cups of coffee when we manifestly haven’t. In my view treating biases and heuristics as ‘being conned’ is neither helpful nor accurate.

What does happen is that we believe a distance of X is nearer by when it is framed as (Y+X)-Y than when it is plainly X. That observation does not require any conning.

Accidental behavioural economist in search of wisdom. Uses insights from (behavioural) economics in organization development. On Twitter as @koenfucius